Chemical Weapons Convention

The United States has destroyed the last of its declared chemical weapons stockpile, a milestone in the history of warfare dating back to the First World War.

What is Chemical Weapons Convention?

  • The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time.
  • The treaty is of unlimited duration and is far more comprehensive than the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which outlaws the use but not the possession of chemical weapons.
  • The CWC is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is headquartered in The Hague.


  • The CWC was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Disarmament on September 3, 1992, and the treaty was opened to signature by all states on January 13, 1993.
  • The CWC entered into force on April 29, 1997
  • It makes it mandatory to destroy old and abandoned chemical weapons.
  • Members should also declare the riot-control agents (sometimes referred to as ‘tear gas’) in possession of them.
  • The CWC is open to all nations and currently has 193 states-parties.

India and the Convention

  • India is a signatory and party to the Chemical Weapons Convention.
  • It has signed the treaty at Paris on 14th day of January 1993.

Convention Prohibits:

  • Developing, producing, acquiring, stockpiling, or retaining chemical weapons.
  • The direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons.
  • Chemical weapons use or military preparation for use.
  • Assisting, encouraging, or inducing other states to engage in CWC-prohibited activity.
  • The use of riot control agents “as a method of warfare.

Declaration require

  • It requires states-parties to declare in writing to the OPCW their chemical weapons stockpiles, chemical weapons production facilities (CWPFS), relevant chemical industry facilities, and other weapons-related information.
  • This must be done within 30 days of the convention’s entry into force for each member state.

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

  • Established by the Chemical Weapons Convention (adopted 1992, entered into force 1997) to implement and enforce the terms of the international treaty, which prohibits the use, stockpiling, or transfer of chemical weapons by signatory states.
  • Its headquarters are located in The Hague, Netherlands is the implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
  • The OPCW was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013.


  • It receives states-parties’ declarations detailing chemical weapons-related activities or materials and relevant industrial activities.
  • It is authorized to perform inspections to verify that signatory states are complying with the convention.
  • It also performs testing of sites and victims of suspected chemical weapons attacks.
  • It also provides for assistance to and protection of States attacked or threatened with chemical weapons, cooperation in the peaceful use of chemicals.
  • By the 2001 Relationship Agreement between the OPCW and the United Nations, the OPCW reports on its inspections and other activities to the UN through the office of the secretary-general.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Any Time Doubt
Exact IAS
Any Time Doubt