General Studies - III

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
  • Land Reforms in India.
  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment Models.
  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Disaster and Disaster Management.
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.


Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment


  • Meaning of Planning
  • Need for Planning in Economic Development
  • Imperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural Planning
  • Objectives of Planning
  • Indian Planning History
  • Techniques of Indian Planning
  • Achievements & Failures of Indian Planning
  • Shortcomings of Planning in India
  • NITI Aayog Vs. Planning Commission

Mobilisation of Resources

  • Types of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural etc.
  • Need for Resource Mobilisation
  • Role of Savings & Investment
  • Government Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)
  • Banking Sector & NBFCs
  • Capital Market
  • External Sources – FDI, ODA etc.
  • Public Borrowing & Management of Public Debt
  • Challenges in Mobilising Resources for Development
  • Steps That Can Be Taken

Growth & Development

  • Meaning of Development & Growth
  • Difference between Development & Growth
  • Determinants of Growth & Development
  • Importance & Limitations of Economic Growth
  • Jobless Growth
  • Pro-Poor Growth
  • Balanced & Unbalanced Growth
  • Dimensions of Development
  • Measurement & Indicators of Development
  • Approaches to Development:
    • Market-Based Approach
    • Role of State and Planned Approach
    • Mixed Economy Approach
  • Challenges to Development & Growth


  • Nature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. Informal
  • Terms Related to Employment – Labour Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population etc.
  • Sectoral Distribution of Employment
  • Quality of Employment
  • Causes of Lack of Employment
  • Restructuring of Workforce
  • Government Initiatives for Generating Employment
Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It
  • What is Inclusive Growth?
  • Elements of Inclusive Growth
  • Need for Inclusive Growth
  • Indicators of Inclusive Growth
  • Challenges in Achieveing Inclusive Growth in India
  • 12th FYP & Inclusive Growth
Government Budgeting

Need for Government Budgeting

Components of the Government Budget

  • Revenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue Expenditure
  • Capital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital Expenditure

Changes in Budgetary Process in 2017

Measures of Government Deficit

  • Revenue Deficit
  • Fiscal Deficit
  • Primary Deficit

Fiscal Policy

Deficit Reduction


Other Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.

Land Reforms in India
  • Rationale for Land Reforms
  • Components of Land Reforms
  • Impact of Land Reforms
  • Problems in Implementaion of Land Reforms
  • Success of Land Reforms
  • Recent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.
Effects of Liberalization on the Economy
  • Phase of Liberalisation
  • Impact on Different Sectors of the Economy
Changes In Industrial Policy & their Effects on Industrial Growth
  • Industrial Policy Before 1991
  • Industrial Policy After 1991
  • Phases of Industrial Growth
  • Linkage Between Economic Reforms and Economic Outcomes
  • Weaknesses and Failures of Industrial Policies
  • National Manufacturing Policy
  • SEZs
  • Make in India
  • Energy
  • Ports
  • Roads
  • Airports
  • Railways
Investment Models

Need for Investment

Sources of Investment

Types of Investment Models

  • Domestic Investment Models
    • Public Investment Model
    • Private Investment Model
    • Public Private Participation Investment Model
  • Foreign Investment Models:
    • FDI
    • FII, etc.
  • Sector Specific Investment Models
  • Cluster Based Investment Models

Investment Models Followed by India


Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country
  • Importance of Cropping Pattern
  • Types of Cropping Pattern
  • Reasons Why Cropping Pattern Differ
  • Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern
  • Emerging Trends in Cropping Pattern
  • Long-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern
Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage
  • Modes of Irrigation
  • Sources of Irrigation
  • Choosing an Irrigation System
  • Problems Associated with Irrigation
  • Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans
  • Environmental Effects of Irrigation
  • Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms
  • Need for a National Water Policy
Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints
  • Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.
  • Role of FCI
  • Regulated Markets
  • Warehousing
  • Cooperative Marketing
  • Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process
  • APMCs
  • National Agricultutral Market (NAM)
  • Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO)
  • Contract Farming
  • Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities
E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions
Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices
  • Agricultural Pricing Policy
  • Rationale for Subsidies
  • Types of Subsidies
  • Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsisies
  • Clash with WTO Agreements
Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping
  • Objectices/Significance
  • Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.
  • Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS
  • Need to Improve the Working of PDS
  • Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunaes Associated with PDS
  • Steps Taken by Governement in this Regard
Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security
  • Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India
  • Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution
  • Need for Food Security
  • NFSM And othe Food Security Realted Government Initiatives
Economics of Animal-Rearing
Food Processing & Related Industries in India
  • Scope & Potential in India
  • Significance
  • Location
  • Constraints and Challenges
  • Upstream & Downstream Requirements
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.


Developments & their Applications & Effects in Everyday Life

Chemicals in Food

  • Artificial Sweetening Agents
  • Food Preservatives


  • Antacid
  • Antihistamines
  • Neurologically Active Drugs
    • Tranquilizers
    • Analgesics
  • Antimicrobials
    • Antibiotics
    • Antiseptic and Disinfectant
  • Anti-Fertility Drugs, etc.

Cleansing Agents

  • Soaps
  • Synthetic detergents


Water Softener

Water Purification/Disinfection

Microwave Oven, etc.

Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
  • Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
  • Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
  • Satyendra Nath Bose
  • Meghnad Saha
  • Homi Jehangir Bhabha
  • Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
  • A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  • Vikram Sarabhai
  • Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
  • Har Gobind Khorana
  • Tessy Thomas
  • C.N.R. Rao
Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology
  • IT & Computers
  • Space
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biotechnology
  • Robotics
  • Defence
  • Nuclear
Awareness in Different Fields
  • IT & Computers
  • Space
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biotechnology
  • Robotics
  • Defence
  • Nuclear
Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights
  • Need for Intellectual Property Rights
  • Types of IPR
  • IPR Regime in India
  • International Agreements Related to IPRs
  • Geographical Indicators
  • Recent Issues – Evergreening, Compuslory Licensing, Prominent Cases etc.



What is Biodiversity?

Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.

Importance of Biodivesirty – Ecosystem Services, Bio Resources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits etc.

Resasons for Loss of Biodiversity


  • In-situ & Ex-Situ
  • Eco-Sensitive Areas
  • Ecological Hotspots
  • National Guidelines, Legislations & Other Programmes.
  • International Agreements & Groupings
Environmental Pollution & Degradation

Types of Pollution & Pollutants

Impact of Pollution & Degradation

  • Ozone Layer Depletion and Ozone Hole
  • Greenhouse Gas Effect & Global Warming
  • Eutrophication
  • Desertification
  • Acid Rain
  • Hazardous Waste, etc.

Causes/Sources of Pollution & Degradation

Prevention & Control of Pollution & Degradation

National Environment Agencies, Legislations and Policies

International Environment Agencies & Agreements

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
  • What is EIA?
  • Indian Guidelines & Legislations
  • EIA Process
  • Need & Benefits of EIA
  • Shortcomings of EIA in India
  • Measures to Make EIA Effective
Disaster Management
  • Types of Disasters
  • Management of Disasters
  • Community Level Disaster Management
  • Governement Initiatives on Disaster Management


Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism
  • Factors Responsible for Spread of Extremism
  • Steps that State can Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to Underdevelopment
  • Naxalism
Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security

Threats from Non-State Actors

  • J&K Separatism
  • Left Wing Extremism
  • North East Insurgency
  • Terrorism in Hinterland & Border Areas
  • Right Wing Terrorism

Reasons for Spread of Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

Institutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal Security

  • NIA
  • MAC
  • UAPA
  • TADA
  • POTA
  • NCTC
Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks
  • Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
  • Challenges in Managing Social Media
  • Steps That can be Taken
Basics of Cyber Security
  • Cyber Security
  • Threats to Indian Cyber Security
  • Steps taken by India
  • International Cooperation on Cyber Security
  • Cyber Warfare
  • Terms Associated with Cyber Security
Money-Laundering & its Prevention
  • Process of Money Laundering
  • Impact of Money Laundering
  • Challenges to Tackle Money Laundering
  • Steps to Counter Money Laundering
  • Terms Related To Money Laundering
Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
  • Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & Terrestrial
  • Land Boundary Disputes with Neighbours
  • India’s Policy in Border Area Security Management
Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism
  • Types of Organised Crime
  • Challenges in Controlling Organised Crime
  • Indian Context – Link between Organised Crime & Terrorism
Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate
  • Central Armed Police Forces
  • Central Paramilitary Forces
  • Security & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc.
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